Patachitra is an important folk- Art of Bharatbarsa or India. By nature it is very colorful and has a deep rooted connection with ancient culture. According to the shape and size there are two types of Patachitra may be distinguished. These are Squre Patachitra or Chouko Pata and Rolling Patachitra or Jarhano Pata. Squre Patachitra or Chouko Pata is a card shaped Pata, which formed on the concept of a single impression. It has no rolling portion. This type of Patachitra has been making from post card size to various big sizes. Post card sized Patachitra’s are available at the cost of Rs.10. And other type’s of big Chouko Patachitra’s price depended on the basis of it’s size and quality. And the other type of Patachitra, named Jorhano Pata or rolling Patachitra has known in various name, such as Jorhano Pata,Dighal Pata, Latai Pata etc. This type of Patachitra generally formed by the hard work and devotion of Patua Artist. Generally one month to ten month’s time has required for one Rolling Patachitra, which is depended on the matter of how the Patachitra is long. In length one rolling Patachitra may be formed within 10 feet’s to 40 feet’s. This type of Patachitra generally formed on a dramatic Popular story, which described by the Patua Artist or a group of Patua Artist’s.
According to the subject matter there are many type’s of Patachitra may have seen, such as Chakshudan Pata, Jama Pata, Saheb Pata, Kalighata Pata, Gaji Pata, Satyapirer Pata, Pabuji Pata etc. And in general context of view Patachitra may be divided into six classes. Such as General, Political, Historical, Religious, social and environmental. Now here is some example, classification and description on various Patachitra, as follows—
GENERAL PATACHITRA :
All type’s of card shaped single image of the God, Goddess, man or woman or any kind of general art figure is known to us as general Patachitra. This kind of Patachitra is also known as Choko Patachitra. Example- Image of Goddess Durga, Image of Tree, Image of a Village Women etc.
SOCIAL PATACHITRA :
This type of Patachitra generally formed on various social matter. Life, attitude, concept or movement of of the society or people has considered as the subject of Social Patachitra.Example- Pulse Polio Avijan, eradication of Malaria, Communal harmony, Terrible Tsunami, explosion in Mumbai, Tree Plantation, AIDS Awareness, Awareness on Human Rights, Persecution of woman, Earthquake, Protest to intoxication etc.
This type of Patachitra generally formed on Mythological story.Example- Raban Badha, Sita Haran, King Harishchandra, Krishnaleela, Durgaleela, Sabitree- Satyaban, Manasa Mangal, Chandee Mangal, Dharma Mangal, Annada Mangal etc
HISTORICAL PATACHITRA :
This type of Patachitra generally formed on Important Historical facts, Movements, Wars or Historical characters. Example- Second World War, Ajaad Hind Fouj and Netaji Subhas Basu , Atom bomb in Hirosima and Nagasaki, Destruction of Babri Masjid, Terrorist attack on the World Trade Centre (U.S.A.) ,Saheb Pata, Life of Vidyasagar, Life of Rabindranath Thakur, Life of Vivekananda etc.
This type of Patachitra generally formed on Religious Concepts, facts, Movements, Customs etc. Example- GajinPata, Satyapirer Pata, Jama Pata, Shakti Pata, Vaishnab Pata, Chaitanyaleela etc.
SOME IMPORTANT PATACHITRA –
Gaji Pata basically originated and developed in Bangladesh. It is very popular religious Patachitra of Muslim community, Which has formed on local history or hearsay. In this kind of folk-art Patua artist generally described a supernatural power in his song or Pater Gaan, which creates a deep influence to the folk people. It has a similarity to Satyapirer Pata, which is also popular in Paschim Banga. So the Gaji Pata developed religious faith and spirit of folk people.
Saheb Pata has formed on the concept of western influence and historical facts of British India period. It has an amazing historical value to our nation. We are all known that India, our motherland was brutally ruled by the British people for two hundred years. From 1757 to 1947, there are so many cruel action had occurred by the British ruler to our countryman. According to subject matter there are two types of Saheb Pata may be observed. These are (1) Protest to British ruler and (2) Oppression of British ruler.
Tribal Pata has generally formed on the life and art thinking of Tribal people. We are known that they lived nearer to soil and water. They lived nearer to nature and they have no artificiality of life style and also have no negative approach to the civilization. In the song of Tribal Pata we may have seen their simplicity of life. Their life circle, their tradition and beliefs were manifested through the Tribal Pata.
Chakshudan Pata is a kind of Tribal Pata, which has been used by the Tribal people in the occasion of spiritual custom of a dead man of their community. According to shape and size it is a classification of Chouko Pata. This type of Pata is also known as Jadu Pata or Magic Pata. And the Patua, who made it generally called as Jadu Patua. When a member of tribal family leaved the earth, Jadu Patua entered their house and told that the soul of that dead man will free from all malicious action if only the Chakshudan(It is a religious custom of Tribal people) occurred by the Patua. And after the conversation with family member that Jadu Patua pictured the imaginary eyeball of that concern dead man in his Pata with the exchange of prices.
KALIGHAT PATA :
In Kolkata there is a Devine place, named Kalighata, which is very famous for the temple of Goddess Kali. This temple was founded in the year 1798. According to Hindu mythology the little finger of right leg of the Goddess Sati(wife of God Shiva) had fallen here. We are known from the history of Kolkata that innumerable village people had came to Kolkata in all over the period of 18th and 19th century. They leaved their native places for new kind of job and for the attraction of urban life-style of Kolkata, which city was founded by the British. And also in Kalighata there are many new colony were founded. There lived some people of Patua community, whome were came from various villages of Bengal. They were all known that the devotees will come here through out the year in all time. So they had tried to make worshipful pata. At first they had tried to make musk of Hindu God and Goddess and after that they used the body of clay made pot named ‘Sara’, which were used by the devotees in worship of Goddess Kali. Generally they paints various images of Hindu God and Goddess. In 19th century they have also begun using a variety of non-religious themes in their paintings such as Babu Pata, Saheb Pata etc. There are six type of Pata may be distinguished in the history of Kalighta Pata. These are- 1.Musk of the God and Goddess 2. Images of the God and Goddess on the body of clay made pot, called Sara 3.Satirical Picture 4. House – hold Picture 5. Religious and Mythological Pata.
This Pattachitra painting is closely related with the worship of Lord Jagannath. In this kind of Patachitra, Patuas generally used the story of the Ramayana, Mahabharath and of Radha & Krishna. One thing in wondering that these paintings were traditionally done only by males. However, in recent times, some women artists have also taken up this folk-art form. The origin of Patachitra paintings of Puri is linked with the famous Jagannath temple of Puri, which was built by the Choda-Ganga Deva. The chitrakars of Puri were closely related with temple functionaries who live in and around the temple town of Puri like the Kalighata Patua. Now, the community of chitrakars have spread beyond Puri district, and they have also started to create a variety of paintings, which were non religious in nature.
Jama Pata may be existed in the branch of religious Patachitra. It has formed with the concept of sin and virtue. According to Hindu mythology Jama is the God of death and he is coming to the people as rider of buffalo .He also evaluate human acts and life after death of man or woman. And there after he also arranged the place of heaven or hell. The God of death Jama also arranged punishment for those people who were living in hell and had done bad work in human life.